Gerunds in English Grammar: A Complete Guide for ESL Learners

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Hello, fellow English learners! As an ESL expert, I know how tricky grammar rules can be. One of the most common challenges is understanding gerunds. Today, I’ll walk you through everything you need to know about gerunds in English grammar. Let’s dive in!

A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that functions as a noun in a sentence. It can act as a subject or object or follow a preposition. For example, in “Swimming is fun,” “swimming” is a gerund. Use gerunds to describe actions in progress or ongoing states, often following verbs like enjoy, avoid, and consider.

Now, we will explore how to form gerunds, common verbs followed by gerunds, and tips to avoid common mistakes. Stay tuned to master the use of gerunds in your sentences!

What is a Gerund?

A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that functions as a noun in a sentence. It can act as the subject, object, or complement, making verbs take on noun roles. For example, in “Swimming is fun,” “swimming” is a gerund acting as the subject, showing how gerunds integrate verbs into different grammatical functions.

Gerunds are unique because they transform verbs into nouns while maintaining a sense of action. In “I enjoy reading,” “reading” is a gerund acting as the object of the verb “enjoy.” This versatility makes gerunds an essential part of English grammar. Here are some more examples of gerunds as objects.

  • She enjoys hiking.
  • They discussed traveling during the holidays.
  • He loves painting.

When gerunds act as subjects, they often add dynamism to sentences. For instance, in “Running helps build endurance,” “running” serves as the subject, indicating that the activity itself has a beneficial effect. This use of gerunds as subjects brings an active element to the noun role. Here are some more examples of gerunds as subbjects.

  • Running is my favorite activity.
  • Cooking requires patience.
  • Swimming boosts overall fitness.

Gerunds can also function as complements, providing more information about the subject. In “My favorite hobby is painting,” “painting” is a gerund that complements the subject “hobby,” adding detail and depth to the sentence. This usage helps in making sentences more informative and engaging. Here are some more examples of gerunds as compliments.

  • His passion is writing.
  • The main challenge is balancing work and study.
  • My dream is becoming a doctor.

Understanding gerunds and their versatile roles can significantly enhance writing clarity and richness. Effectively using gerunds makes sentences more dynamic and expressive, enriching the overall narrative.

How to Form a Gerund

Forming a gerund is straightforward. Add -ing to the base form of a verb. This transformation turns verbs into nouns that can serve various grammatical roles in a sentence. For example, “Run” becomes “Running,” making it a gerund.

Forming gerunds involves adding -ing to the end of a verb. This simple rule applies to most verbs, allowing them to be used as nouns. For instance, “Eat” changes to “Eating,” creating a noun from a verb. Here are some more examples:

  • Run → Running
  • Eat → Eating
  • Read → Reading
  • Talk → Talking
  • Walk → Walking

When a verb ends in -e, form the gerund by dropping the -e and adding -ing. This modification maintains the verb’s core while converting it into a noun. For example, “Make” becomes “Making,” seamlessly transitioning the verb to a gerund. Here are some more examples:

  • Make → Making
  • Bake → Baking
  • Drive → Driving
  • Write → Writing
  • Ride → Riding

Gerunds can be formed from almost any verb by following this simple pattern. This flexibility makes gerunds a crucial component in constructing diverse and dynamic sentences. For example, “Swim” becomes “Swimming,” easily turning a verb into a noun. Here are some more examples:

  • Swim → Swimming
  • Play → Playing
  • Sing → Singing
  • Jump → Jumping
  • Dance → Dancing

Understanding how to form gerunds enhances writing clarity and versatility. By applying the -ing rule, verbs can be transformed into nouns that fit various roles within sentences, enriching the overall expression. Here are some more examples:

  • Jump → Jumping
  • Talk → Talking
  • Walk → Walking
  • Read → Reading
  • Cook → Cooking

Mastering the formation and use of gerunds opens up a range of expressive possibilities in writing and speaking. Adding -ing to verbs allows you to create more dynamic, flexible, and descriptive sentences that effectively convey your ideas.

Uses of Gerunds

Gerunds are versatile and can be used in various ways in sentences. They can function as subjects, objects, or follow prepositions, adding flexibility and depth to your writing. For example, in “Dancing is my favorite hobby,” “dancing” is a gerund acting as the subject.

1. Gerunds as Subjects

When gerunds act as subjects, they tell us what the sentence is about, making the sentence more dynamic and engaging. For example, “Dancing is my favorite hobby,” shows “dancing” as the subject, highlighting the activity as the main focus.

Gerunds bring a sense of action to the sentence even though they function as nouns. They emphasize the activity, making the sentence lively and interesting. For example, “Reading helps improve vocabulary,” shows how reading, an action, is crucial for learning new words.

Here are some more examples:

  • “Swimming builds endurance.”
  • “Running is good for health.”
  • “Cooking can be therapeutic.”
  • “Writing enhances creativity.”
  • “Traveling broadens the mind.”

Using gerunds as subjects can make sentences more descriptive and informative. For instance, “Swimming builds endurance,” places the focus on the activity of swimming and its benefits, rather than just stating a fact about endurance.

Gerunds used as subjects often add depth and context to sentences. For example, “Writing enhances creativity,” shows that the act of writing, itself, boosts creative thinking. This use of gerunds helps in providing more information and making sentences richer in detail.

Understanding how to use gerunds as subjects can greatly improve your writing by making it more engaging and dynamic. They allow you to focus on actions and activities, adding a layer of interest and depth to your sentences.

2. Gerunds as Objects

Gerunds can also be objects, following certain verbs, allowing the action described by the verb to become the focus of the sentence. For example, “She enjoys cooking,” shows “cooking” as the object of the verb “enjoys,” emphasizing the activity she likes.

Using gerunds as objects makes sentences more specific and detailed. In “They avoid swimming in cold water,” “swimming” is the object of “avoid,” indicating the activity they try to prevent. This usage helps to convey precise actions and preferences.

Here are some more examples:

  • “I love reading.”
  • “He dislikes waiting in long lines.”
  • “We finished painting the house.”
  • “They started jogging every morning.”
  • “She continued practicing piano.”

Gerunds as objects help in highlighting actions that are directly affected by the verb. For example, “I love reading,” focuses on the action of reading as something that is loved. This construction helps in making the sentences more engaging and action-oriented.

In sentences like “We finished painting the house,” the gerund “painting” serves as the object of “finished,” providing clear information about what was completed. This use of gerunds adds clarity and depth to the sentence structure.

Understanding how to use gerunds as objects enhances your ability to express detailed actions and preferences clearly. It allows verbs to seamlessly integrate actions as their objects, enriching the overall expression and making the sentences more informative and engaging.

3. Gerunds After Prepositions

Gerunds often follow prepositions, seamlessly integrating into various sentence structures. This usage allows the gerund to act as the object of the preposition. For instance, in “He is good at painting,” “painting” follows the preposition “at,” making the sentence more descriptive.

Using gerunds after prepositions helps to provide clear and specific details about actions related to the main verb. For example, “They talked about traveling to Europe,” uses “traveling” after the preposition “about,” adding context and detail to the conversation.

Here are some more examples:

  • “She is interested in learning new languages.”
  • “We apologized for being late.”
  • “He is responsible for managing the team.”
  • “They succeeded in solving the problem.”
  • “She complained about feeling unwell.”

Gerunds following prepositions are particularly useful in showing relationships and conditions. For instance, “He is responsible for managing the team,” places “managing” after the preposition “for,” clearly indicating his duty. This construction adds precision and clarity to the sentence.

In sentences like “We apologized for being late,” the gerund “being” follows “for,” explaining the reason for the apology. This structure helps in connecting actions and explanations smoothly, enhancing the overall coherence of the sentence.

Understanding how to use gerunds after prepositions can greatly enhance sentence variety and complexity. It allows for more nuanced expressions and detailed descriptions, making your writing richer and more engaging.

Common Verbs Followed by Gerunds

Some verbs are commonly followed by gerunds, which are verb forms ending in -ing that function as nouns. Knowing these verbs helps you use gerunds correctly in sentences. For example, “She enjoys reading,” where “enjoys” is followed by the gerund “reading.”

Verbs like “enjoy,” “avoid,” and “consider” often take gerunds. These verbs describe actions or states that are better expressed with a noun-like form of a verb. For instance, “He avoids eating junk food,” uses “eating” as a gerund to explain what he avoids.

Using gerunds after certain verbs can make sentences clearer and more natural. Verbs such as “suggest,” “keep,” and “recommend” also follow this pattern. For example, “She suggests taking a walk,” where “taking” is the gerund following “suggests.”

Understanding which verbs are followed by gerunds enhances your grammar and writing skills. Common verbs like “miss,” “practise,” “admit,” “deny,” and “appreciate” follow this pattern. For instance, “I miss seeing my friends,” uses “seeing” as a gerund after “miss.”

Using gerunds correctly after these verbs will make your sentences flow better and sound more natural. This understanding helps in both writing and speaking, making your English more fluent. For example, “They enjoy playing tennis,” feels smoother and more natural.

By familiarizing yourself with these common verbs and their gerund forms, you can enhance your communication skills, making your expressions clearer and more engaging. The following table shows some examples of verbs followed by gerunds.

VerbExample Sentence
EnjoyShe enjoys reading.
AvoidHe avoids eating junk food.
ConsiderThey considered moving to a new city.
DiscussWe discussed going to the beach.
FinishThey finished painting the house.
SuggestI suggest taking a break.
KeepHe keeps talking during the movie.
RecommendShe recommends visiting the museum.
ImagineCan you imagine living there?
DelayThey delayed starting the project.
MissI miss seeing my friends.
PractiseHe practises playing the guitar daily.
AdmitShe admitted stealing the money.
DenyThey denied knowing about the plan.
AppreciateI appreciate your helping me.
QuitShe quit smoking last year.
RiskHe risks losing his job.
MindDo you mind opening the window?

Understanding these patterns helps you use gerunds effectively in various sentence structures. This knowledge improves your ability to communicate clearly and naturally in English.

Gerunds vs. Present Participles

It’s easy to confuse gerunds with present participles because both end in -ing. The key difference is their function. Gerunds act as nouns, while present participles function as verbs or adjectives. Compare these examples:

Gerund: “Swimming is fun.” (noun)

Present Participle: “She is swimming.” (verb)

Gerunds are used as nouns in sentences. They can function as subjects, objects, or complements. For example, in “Running is healthy,” “running” is a gerund acting as the subject. This shows the activity itself as the main focus of the sentence.

Examples of Gerunds:

  • “Reading helps improve vocabulary.”
  • “Cooking can be therapeutic.”
  • “Traveling broadens the mind.”
  • “Writing enhances creativity.”
  • “Dancing is enjoyable.”

Present participles, on the other hand, are used as verbs or adjectives. They can describe an ongoing action or modify a noun. In “She is swimming,” “swimming” is a present participle acting as part of the verb phrase “is swimming,” indicating an action happening right now.

Examples of Present Participles:

  • “The singing bird woke me up.” (adjective)
  • “He is running fast.” (verb)
  • “They were discussing the new project.” (verb)
  • “The rising sun looked beautiful.” (adjective)
  • “She is watching a movie.” (verb)

Understanding the difference between gerunds and present participles is crucial for using them correctly in sentences. Gerunds will always act as nouns, bringing activities and actions into a noun role. Present participles, however, will act as verbs or adjectives, either describing actions or modifying nouns.

By mastering these differences, you can avoid common mistakes and improve the clarity and accuracy of your writing. For instance, knowing that “reading” in “I enjoy reading” is a gerund helps clarify that “reading” is the object of “enjoy,” while in “She is reading,” it is a present participle showing the ongoing action.

More examples for clarity:


  • “Learning new things is exciting.”
  • “Biking every morning keeps me fit.”
  • “Shopping can be exhausting.”

Present Participle:

  • “The learning student asked many questions.” (adjective)
  • “He was biking when it started to rain.” (verb)
  • “I saw her shopping at the mall.” (verb)

By distinguishing between gerunds and present participles, you can use these forms more effectively and enhance both your written and spoken English.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Even advanced learners make mistakes with gerunds. Common pitfalls include confusing gerunds with infinitives, misplacing gerunds in sentences, using gerunds instead of infinitives after certain verbs, forgetting possessive pronouns before gerunds, misusing gerunds after prepositions, and misusing gerunds with negatives.

1. Confusing Gerunds with Infinitives

Infinitives (to + base verb) can also act as nouns, and some verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive with a change in meaning. For example:

  • I like swimming. (enjoy the activity)
  • I like to swim. (prefer the activity)

The choice between a gerund and an infinitive can change the meaning of a sentence. In “I like swimming,” the speaker enjoys the activity itself. In “I like to swim,” the speaker prefers the activity, perhaps as a choice over other activities.


  • She began singing. (started the activity)
  • She began to sing. (decided to start singing)
  • He stopped smoking. (quit the habit)
  • He stopped to smoke. (paused another activity to smoke)

2. Misplacing Gerunds in Sentences

Ensure gerunds are correctly placed in sentences to maintain clarity. Misplacement can confuse the reader and obscure the intended meaning.

Incorrect: She is good at to play basketball.
Correct: She is good at playing basketball.

Proper placement of gerunds ensures the sentence is grammatically correct and easy to understand. For example, “He is afraid of to fail” is incorrect, while “He is afraid of failing” is correct.


  • Incorrect: They are interested to learn.
    Correct: They are interested in learning.
  • Incorrect: She is capable to solve problems.
    Correct: She is capable of solving problems.

3. Using Gerunds Instead of Infinitives After Certain Verbs

Some verbs require an infinitive rather than a gerund. Knowing which verbs these are can prevent common errors.

Incorrect: He decided going home early.
Correct: He decided to go home early.

Certain verbs like “decide,” “promise,” and “plan” typically follow an infinitive rather than a gerund. Using the correct form ensures clear communication.


  • Incorrect: She promised helping us.
    Correct: She promised to help us.
  • Incorrect: They plan going on vacation.
    Correct: They plan to go on vacation.

4. Forgetting to Use Possessive Pronouns Before Gerunds

Ensure the possessive form is correct when using a gerund after a possessive pronoun. This makes it clear who is acting.

Incorrect: I appreciate you helping me.
Correct: I appreciate your helping me.

Using the possessive pronoun correctly emphasizes the gerund’s noun function. For instance, “I remember him singing” can be ambiguous, while “I remember his singing” is clear.


  • Incorrect: Do you mind me asking a question?
    Correct: Do you mind my asking a question?
  • Incorrect: We discussed him joining the team.
    Correct: We discussed his joining the team.

5. Using Gerunds After Prepositions Incorrectly

Remember that gerunds should follow prepositions, not infinitives. This is a common rule in English grammar that ensures correct sentence structure.

Incorrect: He is interested to learn more.
Correct: He is interested in learning more.

Prepositions like “in,” “at,” “of,” and “for” should always be followed by gerunds. This rule helps maintain grammatical consistency and clarity in sentences.


  • Incorrect: She is afraid to flying.
    Correct: She is afraid of flying.
  • Incorrect: He is tired to work.
    Correct: He is tired of working.

6. Misusing Gerunds with Negatives

Negatives should be correctly placed with gerunds to avoid confusion. The placement of “not” can change the meaning of the sentence.

Incorrect: He enjoys not to work.
Correct: He enjoys not working.

Properly placing negatives ensures the intended meaning is clear. For instance, “She regrets not telling the truth” clearly indicates the regret is about not telling.


  • Incorrect: They stopped not studying.
    Correct: They stopped not studying.
  • Incorrect: He admitted to not understand.
    Correct: He admitted to not understanding.

By being aware of these common mistakes, you can use gerunds more accurately and effectively in your writing and speaking. This understanding will help you avoid confusion and ensure your sentences are clear and grammatically correct.

Final Note

Gerunds are an essential part of English grammar, especially for ESL learners. By understanding their formation, uses, and common mistakes, you can master gerunds and improve your English skills. Keep practicing, and soon, using gerunds will become second nature.

Best of luck on your learning journey!

Let’s Practice Now – Quiz

This quiz will test your understanding of gerunds in different contexts. It is appropriate for all levels of ESL learners. Whether you are just starting or have been learning English for a while, this quiz will help you practice and reinforce your understanding of gerunds.

Before you start, we suggest reading the article on gerunds from our website Gerunds in English Grammar. Once you have a good grasp of the topic, come back and test your knowledge with this quiz!

Sign up for free to access our quiz archive.

What is the gerund in this sentence: "I can't stand waiting in long lines"?

What is the gerund in this sentence: "Reading is my favorite hobby"?

In which sentence is a gerund used after a preposition?

Which sentence uses a gerund after an adjective?

Choose the correct sentence using a gerund:

Which sentence shows a gerund used as the subject?

In which sentence is a gerund used as a complement?

Choose the sentence with a gerund used as the object of the verb:

Which of the following sentences correctly uses a gerund?

Identify the gerund in the following sentence: "She enjoys singing in the shower."

Great job on completing the quiz!
For more practice, find the whole quiz archive here.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a gerund?

A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that functions as a noun in a sentence. Examples include “swimming,” “reading,” and “dancing.”

How is a gerund different from a present participle?

A gerund acts as a noun, while a present participle functions as a verb or adjective. For example, “Swimming is fun” uses a gerund, while “She is swimming” uses a present participle.

How can gerunds be used in sentences?

Gerunds can be used as subjects, objects, or complements in sentences. Examples include “Reading is enjoyable” (subject), “I enjoy reading” (object), and “Her hobby is reading” (complement).

Can gerunds follow prepositions?

Gerunds often follow prepositions. Examples include “She is interested in learning,” “They talked about traveling,” and “He is good at painting.”

What are common verbs followed by gerunds?

Common verbs followed by gerunds include enjoy, avoid, consider, suggest, and finish. For example, “She enjoys reading,” and “He avoids eating junk food.”

Can gerunds and infinitives be used interchangeably?

Gerunds and infinitives can sometimes be used interchangeably with a change in meaning. For example, “I like swimming” (enjoy the activity) and “I like to swim” (prefer the activity).

What are common mistakes with gerunds?

Common mistakes with gerunds include confusing them with infinitives, misplacing them in sentences, and using them incorrectly after certain verbs. Ensure proper use for clarity and correctness.

How are gerunds formed from verbs?

Gerunds are formed by adding -ing to the base form of a verb. Examples include “run” to “running,” “eat” to “eating,” and “read” to “reading.”

Can gerunds be used after possessive pronouns?

Gerunds can be used after possessive pronouns. For example, “I appreciate your helping” and “They discussed his joining the team.”

Why are gerunds important in English grammar?

Gerunds are important in English grammar because they add variety and depth to sentences by allowing actions to be used as nouns, enhancing expression and clarity in writing and speaking.

Niaj A A Khan is an ESL Instructor with over 8 years of experience in teaching & developing resources at different universities and institutes. Mr. Khan is also a passionate writer working on his first book, "Learn English at Ease."

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